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Monday, April 5, 2010

Peer reviewed research that supports SCENAR and Ultra Low Doses

497 
0007 -4888/09/1483􏰀0497  © 2009  Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 
Effect of Artrofoon and SCENAR Therapy on Parameters 
of LPO and Antioxidant System of the Blood in Patients 
with Peritonitis in Postoperative Period 
A. V. Tarakanov, S. Kh. Luspikayan, 
N. P. Milyutina, and A. V. Rozhkov 
Translated from Byulleten’ Eksperimental’noi Biologii i Meditsiny, Vol. 148, Suppl. 1, pp. 136-139, September, 2009 
Original article submitted August 1, 2008 
Administration of artrofoon in combination with SCENAR therapy to patients with localized sup- 
purative peritonitis in the postoperative period considerably reduced plasma MDA level, stabilized 
ceruloplasmin activity, and increased catalase activity in erythrocytes compared to the correspond- 
ing parameters in patients receiving standard treatment in combination with SCENAR therapy. 
Key Words: suppurative appendicular peritonitis; artrofoon; self-controllable energoneu- 
roadaptive regulator (SCENAR); lipid peroxidation; antioxidant enzymes 
Department of Urgent Medicine, Rostov State Medical University, 
Rostov-on-Don 
Pronounced endogenous intoxication accompanying 
suppurative peritonitis (SP), mixed-type hypoxia, and 
hypovolemia lead to signifi cant activation of free-ra- 
dical LPO processes, which becomes a leading com- 
ponent in the pathogenesis of cell alteration [6,7]. The 
course of the infl ammatory process is interrelated with 
the state of plasma membranes, which undergo destruc- 
tive changes [8,12]. Destruction of membranes under 
the effect of endogenous and exogenous factors trig- 
gers pathochemical processes affecting the functions 
of various systems and the whole organism [3]. LPO 
processes play a role of a molecular trigger mecha- 
nism during the formation of adaptation mechanisms; 
activation of these processes is a universal response 
of the organism to extreme exposures. Antioxidant 
system regulates the intensity of LPO processes in the 
blood and cells and the concentration of endogenous 
lipoperoxides [1,18]. 
Correction of LPO is an essential, but little stu- 
died method of SP treatment. Apart from drug therapy, 
other methods of LPO correction are known. For in- 
stance, information infl uence by means of bioregulated 
low-frequency pulse electrotherapy, in particular, with 
self-controllable energoneuroadaptive regulator SCE- 
NAR [11] is a promising method [11]. 
Acute suppurative infection is accompanied by 
enhanced production of cytokines and LPO activa- 
tion. TNF-α, one of the most active mediators, triggers 
a cascade of proinfl ammatory cytokines. It activates 
macrophages and interferes the process of respiratory 
burst in phagocytes. Addition of artrofoon, a prepara- 
tion containing antibodies to TNF-α in ultralow doses, 
to complex therapy of patients with SP is advisable 
against the background of excessive inflammatory 
process. We found no published data on the use of 
artrofoon in SP, administration of this preparation in 
short courses, and its effect on the parameters of LPO 
and antioxidant system. 
Here we studied the effect of artrofoon as a com- 
ponent of complex therapy with the use of SCENAR 
on parameters of LPO in the blood and erythrocytes 
and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes in pa- 
tients with suppurative appendicular peritonitis in the 
postoperative period. 
MATERIALS AND METHODS 
We examined 99 patients (76 men and 23 women, 
age 17-74 years) operated for acute appendicitis com- 
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 148, Suppl. 1, 2009 ULTRALOW DOSES
498 
plicated by localized SP. The diagnosis was made 
on the basis of clinical examination and biochemical 
blood tests. The patients were randomly divided into 
3 groups. During the postoperative period, group 1 
patients (n=42) received standard therapy; in group 
2 patients (n=38) this standard treatment was sup- 
plemented with SCENAR-therapy. Group 3 patients 
(n=19) received artrofoon (1 sublingual tablet 4 times 
a day, every 6 h) in addition to complex therapy pre- 
scribed to group 2 patients. Artrofoon treatment was 
performed until elimination of fever (5 days on aver- 
age) and attaining clinical improvement. SCENAR 
procedure consisted in stimulation of the skin on palms 
(thenar and hypo thenar) and feet (zone under fi ngers 
regio plantaris pedis) with remote electrodes (12 cm2
in the F-Sw mode (10 min for each zone) followed by 
treatment of the skin projection of the liver (including 
F 
13 и F14 points of the liver meridian). The strength of 
stimulation was chosen individually [11]. 
The control group comprised 38 age-matched heal- 
thy individuals. 
Blood plasma, 1% hemolysate, and erythrocyte 
suspension were analyzed. Chemiluminescent (CL) 
analysis in the H 
2O2–luminol system [13] was used; 
the intensity of LPO was evaluated by accumulation 
of molecular products in chloroform extract of lipids 
[16]; the content of diene conjugates (DC) [9], MDA 
[10], and Schiff bases [15] and activity of SOD [17], 
catalase [5], and ceruloplasmin by the method of Re- 
vin with modifi cations [4] were measured. The studies 
were carried out in biochemical laboratory of Research 
Institute of Biology, South Federal University, on days 
3-5 after surgery (initial data) and on day 5 after the 
start of complex treatment. 
The data were processed statistically using Stu- 
dent t test. 
RESULTS 
The initial biochemical parameters in 3 groups re- 
fl ected enhanced generation of reactive oxygen spe- 
cies, potent LPO inductors (Table 1). In all groups, 
the amplitude of fast fl ash, parameter of induced CL, 
surpassed the normal value by 29.9-42.6%. The total 
CL yield refl ecting the rate of utilization of lipid radi- 
cals due to their interaction with other lipid radicals 
or endogenous antioxidants was signifi cantly elevated 
only in groups 1 and 2. 
The plasma level of DC in all groups before the 
start of treatment was signifi cantly elevated by 43.4- 
55.1%. In groups 1-3, the content of MDA was sig- 
nifi cantly increased by 60.8, 82.8, and 55.1%, respec- 
tively, and the content of Schiff bases was increased 
by 51.5, 61.6, 24.2%, respectively. 
MDA-type LPO products are bifunctional cross- 
linking agents inducing the formation of high-molec- 
ular weight end-products, Schiff bases. This leads to 
considerable and sometimes irreversible changes in the 
structure and function of membranes. 
More pronounced changes in LPO intensity were 
observed in erythrocytes (Table 2). In contrast to blood 
plasma, where the initial scatter of data was observed, 
TABLE 1. Intensity of H 
2O2-Luminol-Induced CL, LPO, and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Blood Plasma in the Studied 
Groups (M±m) 
Parameter Control 
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 
initial 
value after 
5 days initial 
value after 
5 days initial 
value after 
5 days 
Fast CL flash 
amplitude, mm 43.8±4.1 62.5±11.0 71.9±7.5* 60.9±7.5* 53.5±4.2 56.9±4.1* 47.4±8.3 
CL yield, ×104
rel. units 84.1±2.1 120.0±30.6 164.5±21.3* 136.1±13.3* 153.3±33.7* 93.7±11.9 83.7±9.9 
DC, nmol/ml 14.5±1.8 20.8±1.0* 20.3±1.6* 21.1±1.4* 18.2±0.5*+ 22.5±1.1* 19.2±2.6 
MDA, nmol/ml 25.0±1.8 40.2±2.9* 47.2±2.9* 45.7±2.2* 39.6±2.0*+ 36.8±2.8* 29.7±2.2+o 
Schiff bases, 
rel. units/ml 0.99±0.05 1.5±0.1* 1.30±0.07* 1.6±0.2* 1.3±0.1* 1.23±0.09* 1.34±0.08* 
Ceruloplasmin, 
μmol/liter 1.2±0.1 1.4±0.1* 0.90±0.08*+ 1.1±0.1 1.0±0.1 1.6±0.1* 1.5±0.1*o 
Catalase, 
nmol H 
2O2/ml 14.9±0.9 11.8±1.1* 14.5±2.0 12.4±1.7 17.2±3.2 10.90±1.81* 15.4±0.40 
+ 
Note. Here and in Table 2: p<0.05 compared to:*control, +initial value, ogroup 2. 
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 148, Suppl. 1, 2009 ULTRALOW DOSES
499 
parameters of erythrocytic LPO in all groups underwent 
pa rallel changes. The plasma level of DC in all groups 
before the start of treatment was signifi cantly elevated 
by 123.6, 112.8, and 133.2%. MDA content surpassed 
the control by 53.1, 48.2, and 53.1%, respecti vely, 
and the content of Schiff bases was increased by 26.3, 
22.8, 28%, respectively. Excessive peroxidation con- 
siderably modulated cell functions [2]. 
In patients with SP transferred from intensive care 
unit to surgical ward, the generation of reactive oxy- 
gen forms possessing a wide range of cytotoxic effects 
remained elevated, the intensity of LPO considerably 
increased. LPO induced a vicious circle of disturbanc- 
es in cell bioenergetics and homeostasis, which, if not 
broken, leads to cell disintegration. 
The intensity of free-radical oxidation reactions 
depends on the state of the antioxidant system in tis- 
sues and biological fl uids, e.g. blood plasma. In our 
study, components modulating the mechanisms of 
sanogenesis were added to the complex treatment of 
patients of groups 2 and 3. 
Standard therapy (group 1) did not eliminate oxi- 
dative stress in blood plasma on day 5. CK further 
increased to 64.1% compared to the normal and to 
15% compared to initial value. In groups 2 and 3, 
this parameter tended to decrease by 12.1 and 16.6%, 
respectively. The concentrations of DC and MDA also 
decreased in groups 2 and 3 (in group 1 these parame- 
ters did not decrease). Signifi cant contribution to these 
changes was made by artrofoon: on day 5, the content 
of MDA in group 3 only insignifi cantly surpassed the 
control level (by 18.8%) 
This decrease was accompanied by signifi cant chan- 
ges in activity of antioxidant enzymes. In group 1, initial 
ceruloplasmin activity was increased by 16.6%, but af- 
ter 5 days this parameter signifi cantly decreased (-25%). 
In group 3, this activity was initially high (+33.3%) 
and remained elevated at later terms (+25%). Increased 
activity of ceruloplasmin is a defense and compensatory 
reaction, because it regulates LPO intensity by entrap- 
ping both superoxide anion radical and hypochlorite; 
moreover, ceruloplasmin ex hibits ferroxidase activity 
and reduces the level of Fe2+. Catalase activity in groups 
2 and 3 returned to normal and surpassed it, which was 
not observed in group 1. 
Acute process during the development of localized 
ap pendicular SP against the background of satisfactory 
general health status determines more rapid recovery 
of the status of LPO and antioxidant system. In all 
groups, the content of MDA and Schiff bases signifi - 
cantly decreased (Table 2). DC production remained 
high in group 1 and decreased by 32.9 and 38.3% in 
groups 2 and 3, respectively. 
SOD activity increased in all groups. In group 3, 
the pronounced increase in catalase activity made a 
great contribution into the effect of treatment. In groups 
1 and 2, catalase activity decreased by day 5, while in 
group 3 it signifi cantly increased by 7.7% compared to 
baseline and 22.1% compared to group 2 (р<0.05). 
Thus, postoperation period of localized appendicular 
SP was characterized by enhanced generation of reac- 
tive oxygen species, which was seen from consider ably 
increased parameters of induced CL and eleva ted content 
of molecular LPO products in the plasma and erythro- 
cytes; catalase activity in the plasma and SOD activity 
in erythrocytes decreased under these conditions. 
Standard therapy did not eliminate the symptoms 
of oxidative stress, which was confi rmed by high CL 
parameters and increased MDA content in the plasma. 
SCENAR therapy decreased oxidative stress by day 
5 and decreased the content of DC and MDA in the 
plasma and erythrocytes. 
The use of SCENAR therapy and artrofoon in 
the complex treatment reduced oxidative stress in the 
blood, signifi cantly decreased plasma MDA, content, 
and increased plasma catalase activity. The contribu- 
TABLE 2. LPO Intensity and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Erythrocytes in the Studied Groups (M±m) 
Parameter Control 
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 
initial 
value after 
5 days initial 
value after 
5 days initial 
value after 
5 days 
DC, nmol/mg Hb 7.16±0.72 16.01±0.49* 14.43±0.48*+ 15.24±0.72* 10.22±0.81*+ 16.7±1.1* 10.30±1.52+ 
MDA, nmol/mg Hb 3.46±0.36 5.32±0.31* 4.53±0.24+ 5.13±0.31* 4.21±0.19+ 5.30±0.31* 3.90±0.20+ 
Schiff bases, 
rel. units/mg Hb 0.57±0.05 0.72±0.04* 0.60±0.06 0.7±0.1 0.59±0.04 0.73±0.06* 0.60±0.03+ 
SOD, U/mg Hb 3.35±0.11 3.10±0.23 3.41±0.15 2.80±0.21* 3.24±0.21 3.22±0.20 3.54±0.12 
Catalase, 
nmol H 
2O2/mg Hb 26.40±1.07 31.60±3.28 31.10±1.34* 34.5±3.9* 30.80±1.82* 34.90±4.30 37.60±3.90* 
o 
A. V. Tarakanov, S. Kh. Luspikayan, et al.
500 
tion of artrofoon consisted in a signifi cant decrease in 
MDA content in the plasma, maintenance of cerulo- 
plasmin activity, and elevation of catalase activity in 
erythrocytes. 
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Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 148, Suppl. 1, 2009 ULTRALOW DOSES

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